to the planet
Lease Agreement Plan
Equivalent trees planted
Liters of water saved
Annual amount payable
Total amount payable
The production of energy from renewable sources, particularly photovoltaic, leads to a number of environmental benefits for the planet. Power Clouds decided to show and quantify (in a clear and direct manner) these positive impacts connecting electric energy production in the following 3 parameters:
- CO2 emissions avoided
- Equivalent trees planted
- Water saved
To determine this, it was necessary to estimate the conversion factors between the Power Unit’s annual production and these environmental parameters listed in the calculator.
Annual Power Unit Production
To derive a series of specific parameters of the plant to which it refers, in particular:
- Irradiance (I): Specifies the site where the plant is located. It represents the average annual value of solar energy impacting the earth per square meter of surface.
- Conversion efficiency (ec): Specifies the photovoltaic panels used in the system. It represents the amount of solar energy (irradiance) which is transformed into electricity through the photovoltaic effect triggered by the silicon modules panel. For panels used, this efficiency is 13%.
Starting from these values and multiplying them, it is possible to calculate the specific production Ps (per unit area) of the plant which, for example, in the case of the Scornicesti Solar Farm, is equal to 216 kWh/m2 per year.
The panel’s effective surface area (S), in terms of area of photovoltaic cells, is equal to 1.63 m2. From here, we derive the annual production of Pu from a single Power Unit that, again in the case of Scornicesti, is reported to be 0,350 MWh / y. This value represents the energy produced under optimal conditions from a single Power Unit, in one year of operation, and constitutes the basis of calculation of successive conversions.
Environmental parameter no. 1: CO2 emissions avoided
For the determination of the conversion factor between energy produced and carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted, must refer to the values determined by the International Energy Agency (2012) . These values refer to the emission generated by the production of a KWh of energy, in terms of weighted average of the different sources used for the production (% of use). The report is obtained a value of 502 gCO2/kWh.
Environmental Parameter no. 2: Trees Planted
An environmental parameter, figuratively easy to understand, is represented by the equivalency between the energy produced and the number of trees planted. To perform this step, we must first consider the amount of CO2 avoided, since each tree leads to reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide of an estimated value of 0.039 t CO2 / y  (for medium growth coniferous trees planted in an urban setting, not densely planted, and allowed to grow for 10 years). From this we achieve the conversion coefficient equal to 12.8 trees per kWh of energy produced by Power Clouds’ photovoltaic plants (4.48 trees per Power Unit).
Environmental Parameter no. 3: Water Saved
Producing energy from renewable sources can also clearly allow water savings compared to energy production with traditional sources. Water, in fact, is used in different phases of the production process in conventional power plants, while thanks to the use of photovoltaic technology, significant water savings are achieved. To be able to estimate the amount of water saved, reference is made to what is reported in a study on the analysis of the life cycle of water for photovoltaics, which correlates to energy production with a savings of 1.33 m3/MWh [3 ].
The following table summarizes the conversion factors used with reference to 1 kWh of energy produced by Power Clouds plants, and also in reference to a single Power Unit. Lastly for this, it distinguishes between the annual value and the estimate of plant’s entire life (considered in a precautionary manner, to 25 years).
 International Energy Agency (IEA), 2012. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion − Highlights. CO2 emissions per kWh from electricity and heat generation. Year 2010. (Available at: http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf).
 Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1998. Method for Calculating Carbon Sequestration by Trees in Urban and Suburban Settings. United States Department of Energy. (Available at: ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/sequester.pdf)
 Sinha P., Meader, A., de Wild-Scholten M., 2013. Life Cycle Water Usage in CdTe Photovoltaics. Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of. Volume: 3 , Issue: 1 Page(s): 429 − 432 (Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6313879&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F5503869%2F6387608%2F06313879.pdf%3Farnumber%3D6313879)
POWER CLOUDS Pte. Ltd., is a company that promotes spreading photovoltaic plants (Clouds) throughout the world. At the same time, "Power Clouds" is also the name of the company-sponsored renewable energy project. It is based on a very simple and ingenious concept, which is a new way of building large-scale solar power plants, by involving people in the projects who want to contribute to plant construction and, at the same time, achieve constant earnings.
It’s very simple: people acquire ownership of one or more photovoltaic panels (Power Units) and then decide to lease it as a rental to Power Clouds that designs and builds the solar power plants. Together, it provides clean electricity to the world.
Throughout the duration of the undersigned contract (Lease Agreement), people receive a guaranteed monthly payment or a rental fee from Power Clouds.
The Power Unit is a photovoltaic power panel of 240/245 watts that will be installed and configured within the respective Cloud belonging and connected to the electric power distribution network. Therefore, the Power Unit is part of an entire solar power plant consisting of a series of connected panels.
The Power Clouds project is based on the will of people throughout the world to become part of the project by buying their own solar panel.
Once purchased, the solar panels can be leased to Power Clouds for a 20-year period by signing a Lease contract. The contract guarantees the owner a monthly payment for the contract’s entire duration. The payment is distributed by Power Clouds in exchange for the panel’s usage. At the end contract’s duration, panel ownership remains with the projects’ participants.
First and foremost, on the calculator, it’s possible to simulate all the environmental, social and economic benefits from the number of operating Power Units that you desire to purchase.
The first step is choosing the number of Power Units that you wish to purchase (within the calculator, you can select up to a maximum of 10 units, but in reality, more panels can also be procured). The calculator then processes the data and provides a series of economic details.
Lease Period: length of the Lease contract in years;
Power Units Value: value of photovoltaic panels that can be purchased through World Global Network (www.worldgn.com);
Total Amount Payable: is the total amount of money that you will receive after all the installments have been paid and it represents the total return;
Annual Component: the installment amount is calculated on an annual basis (this amount will then be divided into 12 months on the basis of a monthly payment plan).
Payments are determined based on the Lease contract’s terms and conditions and can be different depending on the solar power plant (Cloud) in which you decide to participate. The payments that the owner receives do not depend on Cloud performance and are not variable.
To get a clear picture of the financial returns that you can have, the calculator has been prepared within the www.powerclouds.com website.
The calculator, depending on the number of operating Power Units selected, proceeds to determine the panel’s potential annual electricity production. From this data, using correlation coefficients (developed and widely-shared in the scientific field), it’s possible to determine the value of avoided emissions, the equivalence in terms of trees planted and the quantity of water saved.
These values, which provide an overall figure related to a plant’s life of 25 years, are useful in describing (in a simple way) the benefits that photovoltaic technology produces with respect to energy production achieved from traditional sources.